Wroclaw History - A Brief Retrospective

Wroclaw is a town with a more colourful and torrid history than most. Located at the crossroads of Central Europe it has found itself embroiled in more than its fair share of fracas and power struggles. Today it is a town rising from the ashes of World War II and Communism, and once again is emerging as a cosmopolitan centre of commerce - a face that has defined its character through so much of history.

The first permanent settlers in Wroclaw were the Slavic Slezan tribe, who built a stronghold on the island of Ostrow Tumski sometime in the 9th century. (Ostrow Tumski is no longer an island since an arm of the river Odra was filled in 1810). Later this settlement was absorbed into Czech territory from where the name Wroclaw is thought to have been derived - after a Czech leader by the name of Wrocislaw. It wasn't until around 990AD that Prince Mieszko I, of the Piast dynasty and founder of the Polish state, seized control of Wroclaw and incorporated the region of Silesia into Poland.

By 1000 Wroclaw must have already been a town of some prominence as King Boleslaw the Brave established one of three bishoprics here, the other two being established in Krakow and Kolobrzeg: as a result the town became the religious centre of Silesia. Wroclaw continued to grow in the next two centuries mainly due to its thriving trade economy and craftsmanship; however in 1241, along with most of southern Poland, the city fell foul of the marauding Tartar army and was razed to the ground.

The town leaders used this misfortune as an opportunity to rebuild the city around a massive Market Square on the south side of the river - the same Market Square that you can still see today. This ambitious building program was a success and soon Wroclaw was enjoying a healthy revival; however in 1336, the last of the Piast Princes died and the duchy of Silesia was annexed to Bohemia - despite the efforts of King Casimir III of Poland to hold onto it. His failure to do so meant that it was six hundred years until Wroclaw was returned to Polish hands.

Wroclaw, or Prezzla as it begins to be known as, continued to flourish under Bohemian rule and in 1387 gained admittance into the Hanseatic League, a powerful conglomeration of trading cities (think of it as a medieval version of G8!). The winds of change picked up again in the 16th century when King Ludwig died in battle, leaving no heirs, and the Bohemian estate elected Duke Ferdinand, of the Austrian line of Habsburgs, as King. Now Wroclaw was under Austrian rule.

The early 17th century saw a marked downturn in fortunes for Wroclaw, as both the Thirty Years' War (1618-48) and the plague took their toll on the city - indeed this period saw the population reduced by half. However when the warring factions of Europe eventually signed the Treaty of Westphalia and brought an end to the fighting, it was business as usual for Wroclaw and an economic and cultural revival began.

The next chapter in the city's colourful history began in 1741 when King Frederick the Great II seized Lower Silesia and brought it under Prussian rule. It was he who officially gave the city its German name of Breslau (or Prezzla), although it had been used for many centuries before by the large ethnic German population. Wroclaw spent the next two hundred years in German hands and by the end of the 19th century it was the third largest Prussian city behind Berlin and Hamburg, and began to be heavily industrialised.

When the Nazis seized power in 1933 the last vestiges of the city's Polish origins were all but gone, and the 20,000 Poles still living there (along with the Jews) were politely asked to leave. Wroclaw, or Breslau as it had then been known for 200 years, was so Germanised by that time that it eventually became the last stronghold of the Nazis. It was the last town to surrender to the Soviets, after a 14-week siege, on May 6th 1945.

After the war, as a result of the Potsdam conference, Wroclaw was handed back to Poland as the whole country was effectively shifted westwards. The remainder of the German residents were expelled and the city was re-populated by Poles from Lwow (now the Ukranian town of Lviv), which was lost to the Soviet Union, Wilno (now the Lithuanian town of Vilnius) as well as many arrivals from Warsaw and Poznan. The new settlers, or 'pioneers' as they were called, inherited a foreign city that was 70% destroyed.

In the sixty years since the war Wroclaw has had to undergo a painful rebuilding process, as well as having to survive and recuperate from the terrors and hardships of Communism and Soviet oppression. In 1989 however, when Poland held it's first elections and saw off the Russian regime, the city put the dark times behind it, and the last decade has seen its successful re-emergence as the economic, cultural and academic centre it has been for so much of history.


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STORY WRITTEN FOR & USED WITH PERMISSIONPosted: May 28, 2014 A Soyuz spacecraft carrying a veteran Russian cosmonaut, a U.S. test pilot-astronaut and a German volcanologist rocketed into orbit Wednesday and chased down the International Space Station, gliding to a picture-perfect docking to boost the lab's crew back to six. The Soyuz rocket lifts off at 1957 GMT (3:57 p.m. EDT; 1:57 a.m. local time) from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. Photo credit: NASA/Joel KowskyWith commander Maxim Suraev at the controls, the Soyuz TMA-13M spacecraft's forward docking mechanism engaged its counterpart on the station's Earth-facing Rassvet module at 9:44 p.m. EDT (GMT-4), five hours and 47 minutes after liftoff from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan."Contact and capture confirmed," reported Dan Huot, NASA's mission control commentator in Houston, as the two spacecraft came together 260 miles above the Pacific Ocean approaching the northwest coast of South America."Congratulations," a Russian flight controller radioed a few moments after docking. "We're wishing you good work and wishing you safe operations.""OK, thank you very much," Suraev replied. "We're going to do our best, we'll do everything we can."Following extensive leak checks, Suraev and his crewmates -- flight engineer Reid Wiseman and European Space Agency astronaut Alexander Gerst -- planned to open the capsule's forward hatch to enter the space station where Expedition 40 commander Steven Swanson, Alexander Skvortsov and Oleg Artemyev were standing by to welcome them aboard.After a traditional video conference with dignitaries and family members gathered at the cosmodrome, Swanson planned to conduct a safety briefing to bring the new crew members up to speed on station systems and emergency procedures before taking a break to close out a long day.The mission began with a sky-lighting burst of fire as the Soyuz rocket's first-stage engines roared to life at 3:57 p.m., quickly pushing the spacecraft away from the firing stand, the same launch pad used by Yuri Gagarin at the dawn of the space age.Suraev monitored the automated ascent from the command module's center seat, flanked on his left by Wiseman, a veteran Navy carrier pilot making his first spaceflight, and on the right by fellow rookie Gerst, a European Space Agency astronaut with a doctorate in geophysics.The climb out through a starry sky went smoothly and all three crew members appeared relaxed and in good spirits as they monitored cockpit displays, flashing smiles and thumbs up gestures on downlinked television.Four minutes after liftoff, the 150-foot-tall rocket's four liquid-fueled strap-on first-stage boosters shut down and fell away, followed three minutes later by separation of the central second stage core booster. The rocket's third stage then ignited to continue the drive to space.The third stage shut down as planned eight minutes and 45 seconds after launch. Moments later, the Soyuz TMA-13M spacecraft was released to fly on its own and the capsule's solar arrays and antennas deployed as planned to complete the initial launch phase of the mission. The Soyuz TMA-13M spacecraft approaches the International Space Station. Photo credit: NASA TVAsked what he looked forward to the most in his first spaceflight, Wiseman said "floating, the view, and the chance to do some science that maybe not now, but maybe 10 of 15 years down the road helps save somebody's life.""If we can something like that, then my time is well spent," he said in a pre-flight interview. "But the first thing I want to do when I get there, I've got to give Swanny a big hug, and then it's time to go look out the window."The launching came amid increasing tension between the United States and Russia in the wake of the ongoing crisis in Ukraine, retaliatory U.S. sanctions and subsequent threats by a senior Russian leader to restrict the use of Russian rocket engines in American Atlas 5 boosters used to launch U.S. military satellites.Dmitri Rogozin, Russian deputy prime minister for space and defense, has also threatened to pull out of the station project in 2020, well before NASA's goal of operating the outpost at least through 2024.For their part, Suraev, Wiseman and Gerst said preparations for the Soyuz TMA-13M flight were routine and that the Cold War-era rhetoric in the wake of the Ukraine crisis had no impact on day-to-day space station operations."Our team, our crew is not just a team of three different guys from three different nationalities or continents," Gerst said at a pre-launch news conference. "We're actually a group of friends."Along with two years of intense training "we've spent weekends together, we've spent weekends on Max's dacha, we've spent weekends together in Cologne, our families know each other really well," he said. "Space is without borders. We fly to an International Space Station where we do experiments that come back to Earth, that benefit all of us, all humankind."The crew answered another question about international relations by standing and embracing, prompting cheers and applause. Suraev then posed with his crewmates for a "selfie" to another round of cheers."When it gets right down to it, we're still supporting each other," NASA space station Program Manager Michael Suffredini told CBS News in a recent interview. "We talk at my level, we're talking at (headquarters) level, we regularly have telecons to reaffirm our commitment. Every time we do something together the teams work and support each other the way we always have."We're trying really hard to do what both of our government's have essentially told us to do (and) that is to continue working in spaceflight the way we have." The space station is back to a six-person crew. Photo credit: NASA TV/Spaceflight NowThe combined Expedition 40 crew faces a busy summer with two Russian spacewalks on tap, up to three U.S. EVAs, the arrival of a Russian Progress supply ship, a final European ATV cargo carrier and two U.S. spacecraft: an Orbital Sciences Cygnus supply craft and a SpaceX Dragon capsule."Our key challenges for this increment will be managing the slew of vehicle traffic that we have in addition to the EVAs that are planned and of course, we also have a very ambitious utilization schedule as well on top of that," said lead Flight Director Greg Whitney. "So it's going to be a challenging time for both the ground and the on-board crew, but we're looking forward to it. It'll be a great mission."Wiseman said he was particularly interested in medical research using the crew as test subjects."We have a ton of human research planned," he said. "They're going to look at my blood, my skin, my bones, my muscle, my eyes especially. And I'm really looking forward to getting into all that science. All that stuff fascinates me. As a Navy pilot, I always had an aversion to medicine. Now I'm being forced into it and I absolutely love it!"John Glenn Mission PatchFree shipping to U.S. addresses!The historic first orbital flight by an American is marked by this commemorative patch for John Glenn and Friendship 7.Final Shuttle Mission PatchFree shipping to U.S. addresses!The crew emblem for the final space shuttle mission is available in our store. Get this piece of history!Celebrate the shuttle programFree shipping to U.S. addresses!This special commemorative patch marks the retirement of NASA's Space Shuttle Program. Available in our store!Anniversary Shuttle PatchFree shipping to U.S. addresses!This embroidered patch commemorates the 30th anniversary of the Space Shuttle Program. The design features the space shuttle Columbia's historic maiden flight of April 12, 1981.Mercury anniversaryFree shipping to U.S. addresses!Celebrate the 50th anniversary of Alan Shephard's historic Mercury mission with this collectors' item, the official commemorative embroidered patch.Fallen Heroes Patch CollectionThe official patches from Apollo 1, the shuttle Challenger and Columbia crews are available in the store. | | | | 2014 Spaceflight Now Inc.ULA awaits NASA decision before outfitting pad for crew SPACEFLIGHT NOWPosted: July 9, 2014 United Launch Alliance has completed the design of a modified Atlas 5 launch pad to accommodate astronaut flights at Cape Canaveral, and construction workers will start installing the upgrades this fall if one of ULA's partners wins NASA funding in the commercial crew program. Artist's concept of an Atlas 5 rocket and CST-100 crew capsule on the launch pad. Credit: United Launch AllianceThe Colorado-based rocket contractor announced Monday the completion of the critical design review for crew accommodations at the Atlas 5 rocket's Complex 41 launch pad at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Fla.The launch pad modifications are designed to allow Boeing's CST-100 crew capsule to lift off from the launch pad with astronauts."This was a critical milestone to ensure all elements are in place to begin the construction as early as this fall to support the Boeing team and crewed launches of CST-100 from SLC-41," said Ellen Plese, director of ULA human launch services, in a ULA statement. "As ULA was creating the innovative new design elements for the pad, human safety factors were the primary consideration."Boeing Co. is one of three companies bidding to win NASA funding to finish development of human-rated spacecraft to ferry astronauts to and from the International Space Station, ending U.S. reliance on Russia for crew transportation.NASA says it will select one or more companies to continue working on space taxis in August or September, leading to operational flights to the space station by the end of 2017.Boeing's CST-100 crew capsule is competing against SpaceX's Dragon spacecraft and the Dream Chaser lifting body space plane proposed by Sierra Nevada Corp. The CST-100 and Dream Chaser vehicles are designed to initially launch on ULA's Atlas 5 rocket, while SpaceX plans to launch the Dragon spacecraft on its own Falcon 9 booster.If Boeing or Sierra Nevada receive funding to complete development of their crew-carrying vehicles, ULA says construction at the Atlas 5 launch pad will kick off before the end of the year.Orlando, Fla.-based Hensel Phelps Construction Co. is leading the contractor team working on the Atlas 5 launch pad modifications.The changes planned for Complex 41 include a crew access tower and crew access arm with a white room for astronauts to climb through the hatch into a spacecraft mounted on top of the Atlas 5 launcher. Engineers also designed a crew escape system designed to whisk astronauts safely away from the rocket in case of a dangerous countdown mishap.The fixed crew access tower, standing more than 20 stories tall, will be built on the west side of the Atlas 5 launch pad, just a car width away from the mounting point for the rocket's mobile umbilical tower and launch platform.Technicians assemble the Atlas 5 rocket's booster stage, Centaur upper stage and payload inside the Vertical Integration Facility about 1,800 feet south of the launch pad. The rocket rolls to the launch pad on the eve of liftoff on top of a mobile launch table, which locks into place over the flame trench to connect the rocket with propellant plumbing and electrical power.Officials said the design of the launch pad upgrades so far has been specifically geared to support flights of the Boeing CST-100 spacecraft because the aerospace giant received more NASA funding than its competitors. NASA awarded agreements to Boeing, SpaceX and Sierra Nevada in August 2012 worth up to $460 million, $440 million and $212.5 million, respectively. The space agency added a cumulative $55 million to the awards in amendments posted last year.NASA pays the companies in installments upon completion of milestones such as hardware testing, financing and design reviews.SpaceX hopes to launch astronaut crews from Kennedy Space Center's launch pad 39A, the former Apollo and space shuttle launch facility. SpaceX signed a 20-year lease of the launch pad in April.Howard Biegler, human launch services lead for ULA, said last month the construction at Complex 41 will take about 18 months to complete.One of the first steps in construction -- if it gets the go-ahead -- will be to excavate about 30 feet of concrete, then drive 30-inch diameter pillars 105 feet into Florida bedrock.Workers will prepare seven segments comprising the main structure of the crew access tower, which will measure 20 feet by 20 feet, at a nearby staging point before transporting the steel sections to the launch pad between Atlas 5 launches for hoisting by a crane.Once construction teams add the crew access arm and steel cladding, ULA plans to hook up hydraulics and instrumentation while testing the system with a CST-100 mockup at the launch pad.The Atlas 5's busy manifest, filled with missions for the U.S. military, NASA and commercial customers, will continue unabated during the launch pad rework, according to Dan Collins, ULA's chief operating officer.Collins said 14 Atlas 5 launches are planned from the launch pad during the 18-month construction phase.Officials expect the launch pad crew accommodations under development for Boeing's CST-100 spacecraft could be adjusted to support Sierra Nevada's Dream Chaser if it flies."Boeing has been the customer that has moved forward, and that's why the design is focused right now on CST-100," Collins said."September of 2016 is when I will have everything built and ready to support commercial crew," Biegler told reporters on a tour of the launch pad.ULA is also working on an emergency detection system to be bolted to Atlas 5 rockets on crewed missions. The avionics box will monitor the health of the launch vehicle and trigger an in-flight abort if it detects a major anomaly.Boeing's CST-100 crew capsule will launch on an Atlas 5 rocket with two solid rocket boosters and a dual-engine Centaur upper stage.Follow Stephen Clark on Twitter: .John Glenn Mission PatchFree shipping to U.S. addresses!The historic first orbital flight by an American is marked by this commemorative patch for John Glenn and Friendship 7.Final Shuttle Mission PatchFree shipping to U.S. addresses!The crew emblem for the final space shuttle mission is available in our store. Get this piece of history!Celebrate the shuttle programFree shipping to U.S. addresses!This special commemorative patch marks the retirement of NASA's Space Shuttle Program. Available in our store!Anniversary Shuttle PatchFree shipping to U.S. addresses!This embroidered patch commemorates the 30th anniversary of the Space Shuttle Program. The design features the space shuttle Columbia's historic maiden flight of April 12, 1981.Mercury anniversaryFree shipping to U.S. addresses!Celebrate the 50th anniversary of Alan Shephard's historic Mercury mission with this collectors' item, the official commemorative embroidered patch.Fallen Heroes Patch CollectionThe official patches from Apollo 1, the shuttle Challenger and Columbia crews are available in the store. | | | | 2014 Spaceflight Now Inc.ULA begins search for new American rocket engine SPACEFLIGHT NOWPosted: June 16, 2014 United Launch Alliance announced Monday it has signed contracts with multiple U.S. companies to mature next-generation rocket engine concepts that officials say could replace the Atlas 5 booster's Russian-built RD-180 engine by 2019. File photo of an Atlas 5 launch from Cape Canaveral on May 22. Credit: ULAThe commercial contracts between ULA and prospective U.S. engine builders cover technical feasibility analyses, high-fidelity planning, schedule, cost and technical risk assessments, and cost estimates, ULA said in a statement released Monday.The announcement comes after a chorus of lawmakers and experts urged the U.S. launch industry to wean itself off of foreign propulsion systems in the wake of provocations from Russian deputy prime minister Dmitry Rogozin.ULA did not identify which companies will undertake the engine studies. Jessica Rye, a ULA spokesperson, also declined to say how many companies signed the contracts with the launch provider.The contracts are for early-stage studies of a hydrocarbon-fueled engine optimized for first stage propulsion with "aggressive recurring cost targets," according to ULA.All the engine concepts will support a first launch by 2019, and ULA expects to select a future concept and engine supplier by the fourth quarter of this year, the company said. ULA will evaluate the feasibility of the new engine concepts for both private investment and the potential for government-industry investment.ULA's Atlas 5 and Delta 4 rockets launch the U.S. government's most critical and costly national security satellites, plus many of NASA's robotic science missions and interplanetary probes.The kerosene-fueled RD-180 engine used on the first stage of ULA's Atlas 5 rocket is built by NPO Energomash in the Moscow region. U.S.-based RD AMROSS, a joint venture of Energomash and United Technologies Corp., imports the engines to the United States and supplies them to ULA for attachment to Atlas 5 booster stages at a rocket manufacturing plant in Decatur, Ala."While the RD-180 has been a remarkable success, we believe now is the right time for American investment in a domestic engine," Michael Gass, ULA's president and CEO. "At the same time, given that ULA is the only certified launch provider of our nation's most important satellites, it is critical that America preserve current capabilities and options while simultaneously pursuing this new engine."ULA said it will continue to work with RD AMROSS to "evaluate the long-term feasibility of the RD-180 in competition with the anticipated new engine." The companies are discussing product improvements, U.S. production of the RD-180 and "other enhancements" to ensure its future viability, the press release said."ULA has a number of very promising alternatives and we are working with the very best propulsion companies in America," said George Sowers, ULA's vice president of advanced programs and leader for the propulsion study. "There are many exciting advanced technologies that are mature and can be used to enhance our capabilities and our competitiveness."The RD-180 engine has logged a perfect record of 52 successful flights since 2000, including 46 missions on the Atlas 5.Monday's announcement by ULA makes it the second company reconsidering its reliance on Russian rocket propulsion. Orbital Sciences Corp., operator of the Antares launcher, is weighing a switch to a solid-fueled first stage for its commercial resupply missions to the International Space Station.Concerns over the use of Russian of rocket engines to launch U.S. military and intelligence-gathering payloads, an arrangement that attracted little criticism for nearly two decades, rose after Russia's annexation of Crimea.ULA rival SpaceX filed suit against the U.S. Air Force in late April asking a judge to overturn a sole-source $11 billion contract between ULA and the Pentagon for 28 satellite launches.SpaceX says it can launch the government's military communications, navigation and surveillance payloads at a fraction of the cost of ULA's rockets. But the Falcon 9 rocket operated by California-based SpaceX is not yet certified to launch the Pentagon's most expensive and unique payloads, and Air Force officials have said they will not give a launch contract to SpaceX until it is certified.A federal judge initially issued an injunction barring ULA and the Air Force from purchasing new rocket engines from Russia after SpaceX raised questions whether payments for the engines benefited Russian deputy prime minister Dmitry Rogozin, who was sanctioned by President Barack Obama along with other top Russian politicians after Russia's incursion into Ukraine.The injunction against RD-180 imports was lifted a week later after U.S. government officials assured the judge the engine trade did not violate sanctions levied against Rogozin. An RD-180 engine fires on a test stand at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in 1998. Credit: NASARogozin, whose purview includes Russia's space and defense industries, then held a May 13 press conference declaring that Russia would no longer sell RD-180 engines for use on U.S. military satellite launches.Air Force and ULA officials have said they have received no formal notification that Russia will cease RD-180 engine exports to the United States.Executives from ULA, RD AMROSS and NPO Energomash met May 30 in Frankfurt, Germany, to discuss the status of RD-180 engine production in Russia, according to Dan Collins, ULA's chief operating officer, who described the meeting as a "good day-long conversation."Collins said the meeting adjourned with no notice of any disruption to the RD-180 engine supply from Russia."We're working very well together, and they're continuing to supply engines," Collins said. "We're looking forward to getting more them in here in the not-too-distant future."Gass told reporters in May that five RD-180 engines were due to arrive in the United States by the end of 2014. Fifteen RD-180s are currently in the country awaiting launch on Atlas 5 rockets.A commission of aerospace experts, chaired by retired Air Force Maj. Gen. Mitch Mitchell, impaneled by Defense Secretary Chuck Hagel this spring to study the Russian engine predicament recommended the Pentagon back the development of a new liquid-fueled engine with similar performance to the RD-180, which generates about 860,000 pounds of thrust at sea level.House and Senate lawmakers have proposed funding for a new liquid-fueled U.S.-built rocket engine to replace the RD-180, directing the Pentagon oversee the development in partnership with NASA.Known as the "Mitchell report," the Defense Department study concluded the new U.S.-made engine should burn hydrocarbon propellants, but it does not specify which type of hydrocarbon -- highly refined rocket-grade RP-1 kerosene or liquid methane. The engine would burn liquid oxygen along with kerosene or methane fuel for combustion.ULA's statement issued Monday also does not distinguish between kerosene or methane for the next-generation engine concept studies contracted with American propulsion providers.Gen. William Shelton, the outgoing head of U.S. Air Force Space Command, said last month he also backed the development of a large U.S. rocket engine. Shelton and Mitchell panel agreed that a new U.S.-built engine was preferable to producing the Russian-designed RD-180 engine in the United States.Although estimates from the Air Force, industry and independent experts differ, most predict it could take five-to-eight years and cost more than $1 billion to develop a U.S.-built replacement for the RD-180 engine.The panel chaired by Gen. Mitchell forecast a new engine could be available by 2022.But industry officials have said a new engine could be ready by 2019 with sufficient funding.One contender for the new U.S.-produced propulsion system is the AR-1 engine by Aerojet Rocketdyne, which manufactures the RS-68 hydrogen-fueled main engine for ULA's Delta 4 rocket.Aerojet Rocketdyne officials have said they aim to sell two of the 500,000-pound-thrust kerosene-fueled engines for $25 million per pair.SpaceX, a ULA competitor, is the only U.S. liquid-fueled rocket engine builder besides Aerojet Rocketdyne with a large first stage propulsion system flying on a space launcher today.The performance of SpaceX's Merlin 1D engine flying on the Falcon 9 rocket does not match the capability of the RD-180.But SpaceX is working on its own million-pound-class Raptor engine. Fueled by methane, the engine is set to begin ground testing at NASA's Stennis Space Center in Mississippi.Speaking at the Atlantic Council on June 4, SpaceX president Gwynne Shotwell said she was not sure building a replacement for the RD-180 was the right choice."Investing in liquid propulsion technologies is a great choice for sure, certainly on components that can be used to build whatever engine the propulsion community finds a market for," Shotwell said. "I think investing in the community is a great idea. I'd like to see it more on the component development -- technology development -- side."Northrop Grumman Corp., which designed a 1.1-million-pound thrust engine for NASA more than a decade ago, provided input to the Pentagon's propulsion panel led by Gen. Mitchell, according to Bob Bishop, a company spokesperson.Bishop declined comment on the status of the specific engine concept designed for NASA, known as the TR-107, but said Northrop Grumman agrees with the Mitchell report's recommendations."We're watching the situation closely, hoping the RD-180 supply isn't disrupted," Bishop said. "Northrop Grumman agrees that a modern U.S. hydrocarbon engine is needed and that focused risk reduction investments should be made."If the Pentagon proceeds with a government-supported engine development program, bills in Congress require the military to oversee a competitive procurement in which all companies capable of building an engine would be welcome to submit bids.Follow Stephen Clark on Twitter: .John Glenn Mission PatchFree shipping to U.S. addresses!The historic first orbital flight by an American is marked by this commemorative patch for John Glenn and Friendship 7.Final Shuttle Mission PatchFree shipping to U.S. addresses!The crew emblem for the final space shuttle mission is available in our store. Get this piece of history!Celebrate the shuttle programFree shipping to U.S. addresses!This special commemorative patch marks the retirement of NASA's Space Shuttle Program. Available in our store!Anniversary Shuttle PatchFree shipping to U.S. addresses!This embroidered patch commemorates the 30th anniversary of the Space Shuttle Program. The design features the space shuttle Columbia's historic maiden flight of April 12, 1981.Mercury anniversaryFree shipping to U.S. addresses!Celebrate the 50th anniversary of Alan Shephard's historic Mercury mission with this collectors' item, the official commemorative embroidered patch.Fallen Heroes Patch CollectionThe official patches from Apollo 1, the shuttle Challenger and Columbia crews are available in the store. | | | | 2014 Spaceflight Now Inc.ULA, SpaceX reschedule launches after radar outage SPACEFLIGHT NOWPosted: April 4, 2014 After a two-week delay to wait for the U.S. Air Force to restore a critical radar tracker, United Launch Alliance and SpaceX have rescheduled their next rocket missions from Cape Canaveral for April 10 and April 14. The Atlas 5 rocket rolled to the launch pad March 24 before a delay due to a radar outage on the Air Force Eastern Range. Workers returned the launcher to its integration building to wait for another launch opportunity. Photo credit: Stephen Clark/Spaceflight NowOfficials put the launches on hold after a component on a rocket tracking radar short-circuited March 24, causing it to overheat and knock the radar offline.Without the radar, the Air Force's Eastern Range was unable to support launch attempts for the ULA Atlas 5 and SpaceX Falcon 9 rockets then set for March 25 and March 30.The Eastern Range is a network of communications stations, tracking radars and safety assets along Florida's East Coast and stretching into the Atlantic Ocean under the ground tracks of rockets as they fly into orbit.The range's job is to keep the public and property safe from launching rockets in case the vehicles fly off course.The radar responsible for the delays is owned by the Air Force but lies on the property of NASA's Kennedy Space Center.First up on April 10 is the Atlas 5 launch of a top secret payload for the National Reconnaissance Office, the U.S. government agency which owns and operates imaging and eavesdropping spy satellites.Liftoff from Cape Canaveral's Complex 41 launch pad is set for a launch period opening at 1 p.m. EDT (1700 GMT) and extending until 2:35 p.m. EDT (1835 GMT).Officials have not disclosed the actual launch window within that period, citing security concerns.The April 10 launch will come one week after an Atlas 5 launch from Vandenberg Air Force Base in California with the military's DMSP F19 weather satellite. Photo of the Falcon 9 rocket undergoing a prelaunch static fire test on the launch pad in March. Photo credit: SpaceXA Falcon 9 rocket is scheduled for liftoff April 14 from the nearby Complex 40 pad with a Dragon cargo spacecraft heading to the International Space Station.The automated spaceship will deliver 2.4 tons of equipment to the space station under contract to NASA.Launch on April 14 is set for 4:58 p.m. EDT (2058 GMT), and the Dragon spacecraft will arrive at the space station April 16.A spokesperson with the Air Force's 45th Space Wing on Friday said the Eastern Range is expected to be ready to support both launches. He did not say whether the Air Force had repaired the damaged radar or activated a backup system to restore the lost tracking capability.Follow Stephen Clark on Twitter: .John Glenn Mission PatchFree shipping to U.S. addresses!The historic first orbital flight by an American is marked by this commemorative patch for John Glenn and Friendship 7.Final Shuttle Mission PatchFree shipping to U.S. addresses!The crew emblem for the final space shuttle mission is available in our store. Get this piece of history!Celebrate the shuttle programFree shipping to U.S. addresses!This special commemorative patch marks the retirement of NASA's Space Shuttle Program. Available in our store!Anniversary Shuttle PatchFree shipping to U.S. addresses!This embroidered patch commemorates the 30th anniversary of the Space Shuttle Program. The design features the space shuttle Columbia's historic maiden flight of April 12, 1981.Mercury anniversaryFree shipping to U.S. addresses!Celebrate the 50th anniversary of Alan Shephard's historic Mercury mission with this collectors' item, the official commemorative embroidered patch.Fallen Heroes Patch CollectionThe official patches from Apollo 1, the shuttle Challenger and Columbia crews are available in the store. | | | | 2014 Spaceflight Now Inc.ULA's common upper stage engine to fly this year SPACEFLIGHT NOWPosted: June 4, 2014 United Launch Alliance plans to debut a new version of the venerable RL10 upper stage engine on an Atlas 5 rocket flight in December in a step toward the development of a common upper stage across the company's Atlas and Delta launcher fleets, a move officials say will reduce costs and increase performance. A view of an RL10 engine being prepared for launch on a Delta 4 rocket. Credit: NASA/KSCBut further upgrades to ULA's rocket upper stages, including concepts to build long-duration deep space tugs and propellant depots, may take a back seat as focus grows on developing a powerful U.S.-built booster engine to end reliance on Russian propulsion.The first flight of the RL10C upper stage engine is scheduled for an Atlas 5 launch from Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif., in December. The flight will place a classified payload for the National Reconnaissance Office into orbit in a mission designated NROL-35 by the U.S. government's spy satellite agency.Developed with U.S. Air Force funding and private investment, the Aerojet Rocketdyne RL10C engine will accelerate satellites into orbit after boosts from first stage engines on the Atlas 5 and Delta 4 rocket.Designed to burn a mix of liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen propellants, the engine passed final flight qualification in June 2013, and the RL10C's first flight is set for December, said Bernard Kutter, a manager in ULA's advanced programs division."The RL10C engine is fully qualified and can be used on either Atlas or Delta," said George Sowers, ULA's vice president of strategic architecture.Sowers said the RL10C will become the standard upper stage engine for all of the company's Atlas 5 and Delta 4 launches. An exception will be for the two-engine version of the Atlas 5's Centaur upper stage, which will continue flying with the RL10A-4-2 version of the engine.The shape of the RL10C's bell-shaped nozzle prevents two of the engines from being placed side-by-side in a dual-engine configuration, Sowers said.The Delta 4 rocket's upper stage is powered by an RL10B-2 engine, which features a carbon-carbon nozzle extension and other upgrades to raise thrust and specific impulse, the measure of a rocket engine's efficiency.ULA is developing the dual-engine Centaur stage to launch crews and cargo on commercial missions to the International Space Station. Sowers said the dual-engine Centaur will also fly with U.S. military, NASA and commercial payloads on launches into low Earth orbit.Sowers said ULA is developing the dual-engine Centaur with internal research and development money.The RL10 engine has flown hundreds of times since the 1960s, helping launch U.S. military payloads, NASA science missions and interplanetary probes, and commercial communications satellites. File photo of an RL10 engine on a Centaur upper stage being stacked to assemble an Atlas 5 rocket. Credit: NASA/KSCAccording to Sowers, the switch to the RL10C engine will not raise the risk of groundings of both of ULA's rocket families in the event of a problem with the upper stage engine."We have that problem today because an RL10A and an RL10B have an awful lot of commonality," Sowers said. "Having more commonality could, in some ways, actually enhance how we can rapidly resolve anomalies because you don't have to figure out the differences. Are the differences relevant? So we don't really see any drawbacks."When a fuel leak in an RL10B engine on a Delta 4 rocket threatened to prevent the launcher from placing its GPS navigation payload in the correct orbit, ULA delayed several downstream Delta 4 missions during an investigation into the anomaly. Atlas 5 rockets fitted with the RL10A engine were cleared to continue flying.The Delta 4 rocket stricken with the fuel leak ended up deploying the GPS satellite in the targeted orbit despite the problem.The benefits of the switch to RL10C engines include cost reductions and better management of ULA's engine inventory."There are cetainly cost benefits to having commonality," Sowers said. "Another real benefit is being able to use the inventory of RL10B engines inherited from Boeing on both vehicles."Boeing developed the Delta 4 rocket before merging with Lockheed Martin's Atlas program to form United Launch Alliance in 2006. Boeing had a stockpile of RL10B engines left over from canceled launches during the contraction of the commercial satellite industry in the early 2000s, plus lost contracts and delays in the readiness of military payloads.Sowers said Aerojet Rocketdyne is converting their inventory of RL10B engines to the RL10C version to allow them to fly on either the Atlas 5 or Delta 4 rocket. The conversion permits the companies to reduce the build rate of the RL10A engine for only designated missions, such as dual-engine Centaur flights with space station crews or cargo.The modifications include installing avionics for active propellant mixture control, a capability currently on the Atlas 5's RL10A engines but not on the Delta 4's RL10B version. The change will allow the Delta 4 to carry up to 200 pounds of additional payload on certain missions, according to a user's guide posted on ULA's website.The RL10C also introduces a redundant dual direct spark ignition system -- a standard on the Atlas 5's RL10A engine -- to the Delta 4 rocket family. File photo of an RL10 engine on a Delta 4 rocket's second stage. Credit: NASA/KSCDelta 4 missions will fly with an RL10C engine with the full-length extendible nozzle similar to the RL10B engines flying today. The Atlas 5's RL10C engine will fly with a truncated nozzle."The original plan was to go to all RL10Cs, but when the commercial crew program came along, it had some unique requirements that drove the need to retain the RL10A capability," Sowers said.ULA also has plans to develop a larger 5-meter (16.4-foot) diameter upper stage with two RL10C engines. Called the Advanced Common Evolved Stage, or ACES, the upper stage would have a longer lifetime in space, capable of serving as an Earth departure stage for deep space missions or as a propellant depot.But Sowers said the ACES development could be put on hold as Congress and the Air Force focus on building a new U.S. rocket engine to replace the Russian RD-180 engine used on the first stage of ULA's Atlas 5 rocket."The common upper stage is something we've been studying for years and years," Sowers said. "It's still definitely in our planning. If you asked me six months ago, I would have said the next thing we want to do in terms of upgrading our vehicles is the upper stage. Now I might say the booster engine is the next thing we need to work on."One design feature of the upgraded ACES system is a variable-thrust hydrogen-fueled aluminum thruster. It is set for a demonstration launch in 2016. The thruster will be fed by waste gases from the upper stage's propellant tanks, which would otherwise be discarded.Sowers said the thruster will allow the upper stage to de-orbit without devoting precious propellant reserves to do the job, removing a performance penalty."All the boil-off we normally have, we can run through that for a safe disposal," Sowers said. "Disposing of upper stages is becoming more and more important because of the debris and junk up there. This is a capability we're really looking forward to having on-board."Follow Stephen Clark on Twitter: .John Glenn Mission PatchFree shipping to U.S. addresses!The historic first orbital flight by an American is marked by this commemorative patch for John Glenn and Friendship 7.Final Shuttle Mission PatchFree shipping to U.S. addresses!The crew emblem for the final space shuttle mission is available in our store. Get this piece of history!Celebrate the shuttle programFree shipping to U.S. addresses!This special commemorative patch marks the retirement of NASA's Space Shuttle Program. Available in our store!Anniversary Shuttle PatchFree shipping to U.S. addresses!This embroidered patch commemorates the 30th anniversary of the Space Shuttle Program. The design features the space shuttle Columbia's historic maiden flight of April 12, 1981.Mercury anniversaryFree shipping to U.S. addresses!Celebrate the 50th anniversary of Alan Shephard's historic Mercury mission with this collectors' item, the official commemorative embroidered patch.Fallen Heroes Patch CollectionThe official patches from Apollo 1, the shuttle Challenger and Columbia crews are available in the store. | | | | 2014 Spaceflight Now Inc.Ultrasound on Discovery arm; Endeavour tiles hit BY WILLIAM HARWOOD

Chris from United Kingdom Reply Sep 4th, 2014

A very nice short history of beautiful piekna Wroclaw. I worked in nearby Dzierzoniow for around 2 years and totally loved my time in Wroclaw and Dolno Slaskie. This was mainly due to the many lovely kind people I meet. . . .many thanks. I hope very much that I can continue 'trying' to learn terrible lovely Polish and would love to return there to live one day. Wroclaw is now a really great City to visit and spend time in. When I read how it was 70% destroyed after WW2 and how it is now, the people of Wroclaw must be very proud and rightly so. Additionally, I am very aware how things have also moved on since the early 1990's. I am sure that this dynamic city can move forward in the same way during the next 25 years. Best Wishes to Wroclaw, Najlepsze zyczenia dla Wroclaw i twoje ludzi (przepraszam bardzo za moj jezyk ;-P)

John from United States Reply Dec 18th, 2012

I have just returned from Wroclaw (November 2012), and it is a wonderful city! So much so, that I plan to move there when I retire. It the university center of all of Poland, a modern city of 500,000 with a new airport and train station (thanks to this year's Euro Cup which Wroclaw helped to host), yet still filled with historic buildings that go back nearly a thousand years. The Centrum Miasto (center square) is one of the loveliest in Europe, and the 13th Century Town Hall is an architectural masterpriece. The city is well landscaped, and instead of being dominated by oppressive Soviet era apartment buildings, there are many simple yet lovely private homes in the unique Polish style. The people struck me as upbeat, friendly, and the populations is young. By the way, to English speakers not yet aware: somehow those letters in Polish are pronounced something like "Vrats-waff," so don't make the same mistake I made the first time I was in Poland (2001) and ask where "Row-claw" is! :-)

Pat Stromberg from United States Reply Sep 24th, 2012

My great grandparents, Samuel Black, a tailor, born 1841 and Rosalie Frankel Newman, born1840, immigrated to U.S. in 1876 from Breslau to California. Rosalie's brother, Edward Newman, born 1843, immigrated to San Francisco about 1860. I am looking for information about their families of origin.

Lilian from Australia Reply Aug 26th, 2012

My family names were Berman and Galewski - my grandfather owned a department store with the name Berman on the building - We are Jewish - those of us whom could fled Breslau pre WW2 - does anyone have any recollection of this family ?

Jan Eckardt Butler from United States Reply Aug 7th, 2012

This page is so interesting. I am searching (with my 2 sisters and 1 brother) for more info on my great great grandparents who emigrated from Breslau in 1884 to Sheboygan, WI, USA. August Zimbal was born 3/31/1816 and married Ernestina Kuhnert in Brelau in 1844. Does anyone have more information on Zimbals (Zimble) or Kuhnerts in Breslau? Would these be German names? not Polish. And would they be Catholic or perhaps Jewish?

Ralph Zimmeramnn from United States Reply Jul 24th, 2012

I have questions of anyone who is interested in the history of the area around Wroclaw. I am in the early stages of writing a book about my father's life. He was born in 1902 in Schmiegel, half-way between Wroclaw (then Breslau) and Posen. I am interested in information about the region from the end of WWI through the years of the Weimar Republic. My grandfather, Heinrich Zimmermann, owned a ziegleri around the Schmiegel area, possibly in Czacz. If anyone knows anything, can point me in a promising direction, or knows of someone who can, please let me know. I'd ask my father, but he passed in 1987 ... before I came to my senses and realized how important this is to me. Thank you.

Alice from United Kingdom Reply Jul 20th, 2012

Is there any special in Wroclaw to remember Edith Stein, the Jewish/Catholic convert philosopher and Carmelite who died in Auschwitz? I should like to visit any places associated with her. Any help appreciated.

Volker Bradley from United States Reply Jul 8th, 2012

Hi, It's beautiful city living in peace. Wonderful to see. Pictures of what this city looked like after the 82-day siege are shocking. As an aside, while visiting in Russia, I became friends with a man who was born in Wroclaw. I was born there in 1937 because my father was stationed there with the German army. 10 years later my friend was born there because his Dad was stationed there with the Russian army. That terrible war and that terrible time. Glad to see that the terrible animosities of that time have passed. I visited another section of Poland where I had lived near Gdansk and found that citizens of Poland were very kind to German visitors and American visitors. Hope to see this city some day again. It looks beautiful. The people who rebuilt this city must be very proud.

Jonathan Yorck von Wartenburg from United States Reply Jul 7th, 2012

My family's estate was in Kleinoels, Olesnica Mala. That is south of Brelau, Wroclaw. I have been very fortunate to visit it twice. I hope to go there again.

Sharon from Australia Reply Jun 22nd, 2012

Hi, I'm Sharon and my greatgrandfather Ehrenfried Reinholdt WARTHOLD - was born on the 27th May 1884 at Breslau, Silesia. Warthold emigrated out of the Deutsch Reich by way of the life of the sea, and found interim refuge in teh U.S.A. for four years and then in Great Britain for two years, from which country he embarked at the Port of London with passage on the Australian-route vessel 'WILCANIA" to arrive in Australia at the Port of Adelaide on the 11th November 1911. We still dont know who my grandfathers mother was; I believe she was Polish Jewish and I am struggling to find any information of either of their pasts.Can you offer any suggestions? I'm in Australia

Alan Wolanicki from Canada Reply May 20th, 2012

my name is Alan, trying to contact more family i have in poland, im from winnipg MB and know very little of my family, anyone can help i would greatly be thankfull...nazywam się Alan, próbując skontaktować się z większą rodzinę mam w Polsce, im z winnipg MB i niewiele wiem o mojej rodzinie, ktoś może pomóc to ja bardzo się thankfull

matthew from Poland Reply Feb 4th, 2012

History! We all know what we read. somethings appear to be true or resemble fractions of true. This article is a very simple and brief review of a city. Its quite nice to see the polish people smiling as they go about there work here. They are polite and gentle people. lacking in anger and supremacy. Thank God is Polish. From An Englishman.

orit from Israel Reply Jan 29th, 2012

"20,000 Poles still living there (along with the Jews) were politely asked to leave". hahaha you must be joking! surely! My grandfather, who was a Jewish Dr. of law, was taken to a concentration camp and when released (after 6 months and a heavy fine was paid) suffered a permanent disability due to the beatings by the Nazis in the camp, was given 48 hours to leave Germany! with nothing but a couple of suitcases! The big villa in Karlowiz the office in the main square...all taken over by the poles, with not a penny paid in reparations!

Lerge from United Kingdom Reply Sep 17th, 2011

Hi, Yasha, if you look under: """http://wroclaw.hydral.com.pl/test.php?ulica=MDEyNjY=&start=120&tend=128""" you may find what you are looking for. There are many photos. Otherwise try a Google Search for "podwale wroclaw". Good luck!

Yasha (Jack) from United States Reply Aug 17th, 2011

I benefited immensely (flooded with emotion) reading this ‘blog' -especially the historically sensitive and understandably painful commentary -which prompted this reply. My parents immigrated to Wroclaw /Breslau in the late 1950’s (from Lwow/Lviv)and my childhood recollections are spotty but I remember (as if it was a Parent mantra recited in Polish)living on "Podwale #61". At the time there was a German Family living and sharing the multi-dwelling apartment with us. Eventually, they repatriated to Germany… I recall going on many countryside outings and playing with their children in the large interior courtyard (probably communicating in Russian/Ukrainian –or ‘tiny’ German). If any of you should know this address (across the street was the Odra River –where in winter I ice- skated) or can take few pictures of the locale; I would be forever grateful… Yasha (Jack)

B Weber from United States Reply Jul 27th, 2011

Just wanted to see information about the area my Schoengarth family came from. They left in the 1870's. Don't know who remained, nice to have a little history. Thanks

Delores Rocks Humphrey from United States Reply Jul 15th, 2011

Interesting site! My dad, Julius Rocks, was born in Breslau 3/1892, & his family moved to Canada in 1897. My great grandparents were left behind, & I know nothing about them. It would be great to find out more.

Jerry from United States Reply May 31st, 2011

It's an excellent article and there are many interesting comments on a city that has embodied most of the positive and negative aspects of the human condition. Perhaps when people matter more and are simply measured by the content of their character instead of their ethnic or religious identity, national boarders will mean a great deal less and if we are just a bit lucky, this world will know peace.

Eva Strangfeld from United States Reply Apr 3rd, 2011


Robert from United Kingdom Reply Oct 29th, 2010

Hi everybody. My Grandfather was called Joseph Deynert or dienert and was born in Breslau in 17-09-1875. He had a sister called Hedwig and a brother that I don't know the name of, but he was a fireman. My Great Grandfather I believe was the head of a fire station and may have been called Joseph also. I believe that his wife or my Great Grand Mother was called Dorothea. The were members of the catholic church but lived in the Jewish quarter. I have found a Joseph Dienert who was a fireman in an old address book who lived at Stockgasse 6 (H11) in 1868. This could possibly be my Great Grandfather. I know that both my Great Grandparents died from cancer and were buried in Breslau. If there are any relations sill living there, or people that can help me trace my ancesters please contact me.

Linda from United States Reply Aug 15th, 2010

I'm hoping one of your readers can assist. I have a late 17th Century Piano marked Julius Mager, Breslau. It was made prior to the time when serial numbers were entered in piano's or for some other reason the serial number which identifies the maker was left off. It has 6 octives + 5 keys. I'm trying to research who Julius Mager was and any history from this piano. Can anyone assist?

Eva from Canada Reply Jul 30th, 2010

I found this article by accident. I, too, was born in Silesia/Slonsk, though not in Wroclaw. [I don't mind whether it's "Breslau" or "Wroclaw"-- English-speaking countries call "Wien" "Vienna" and "Koeln" "Cologne"--and who cares?) I am now a grateful, proud, and very patriotic Canadian. I found the article interesting, though historically a little murky. Be that as it may, I am appalled at some of the comments. SLAV: the Poles did not just expel Nazi criminals--my grandfather and other family members were among the expelled, but while they were Germans, they were not Nazis. (I know you will say: "They all claim they were not Nazis," but Silesia actually was very Catholic and had relatively few "native" Nazis!) My mother and I escaped from Silesia a month before the Russians arrived.) I bear no grudge--Germany as a whole had been responsible for the war and its terrible crimes! Besides, through those events, I ended up in my wonderful new country, Canada. Last but not least, such are the happenings of history. ANTONIO: Poles did NOT kill millions of Germans from those areas! They expelled them, but there were few killings. Those that occurred were probably the sad results of retaliation or were done by sick minds. MICHAEL AND DANIEL: your way of thinking is exactly what may lead to another terrible war and/or genocide. It is utterly primitve, to put it mildly. Besides, perhaps you both ought to improve your English grammar before exposing your lack of it on public sites again? Daniel: There is no "Forever," except in eternity. But here I am, throwing stones myself--my apologies! Can't we all live together in peace and harmony? That's what I love about Canada. We have our differences, too, but we make it work.

alexandra from South Africa Reply Apr 28th, 2010

i live in Cape Town South Africa ,was born in Germany and my fathers family came from Breslau/Wroclaw -my grandfather was an architect(trained in Breslau)(he was taken prisoner by the russians) and also my father who trained in Germany(after esacping with my grandmother)-I am a Interior Designer and I very much believe in Genetic Memory and am hoping to visit this very interesting place so I can learn more about where my father grew up and why I am drawn to ancient historical towns

Lerge from United Kingdom Reply Feb 21st, 2010


Lerge from United Kingdom Reply Feb 21st, 2010

Hallo, Paul, you may like to write to the Registry Office in Wroclaw-Breslau as follows:: Urz¹d Stanu Cywilnego, ul. W³odkowica 20/22, 50-072 Wroc³aw, and address your request to:: Stanowisko do spraw Obs³ugi Archiwum Niemieckiego ( = Archiv der deutschen Standesurkunden) II piêtro, pokój 27 tel. (0048 71 777-91-53)Whether they speak English I do not know. Apparently one may be able to deal with them in German. There is also a web site for the Staatsarchiv in Breslau: http://www.ap.wroc.pl/ with the address at ul.Pomorska 2, 50-215 Wroclaw. They appear to have birth, baptismal, marriage and death certificates from 1909 onwards.I have copied these details from the internet site www.breslau-wroclaw.de - If you can read German, that internet address may be of use to you. I hope that all this may be of help to you.

Paul from United Kingdom Reply Feb 20th, 2010

Helloe evryone, Can someone help with access to birth marriage and death records please? Looking for records relating to: DEINERT,Joseph,Feuerwehrmann, Stockgasse 6,H.II I beleive that Stockgasse is now known as Wiezienna. Any help or advice on how to get access to birth marriage and death records for this person would be very helpful. Please can someone help?

Peter R from Australia Reply Jan 16th, 2010

Three things, in my view, are difficult to deny: Wratislavia was originally a Slavic city and part of the first Polish state; Breslau was ethnically a predominantly German city for most of the 700 years until 1945; Wroclaw has been a Polish city since 1945. Poles have restored the city admirably. It was a harsh peace for Germany, but Germany had unleashed a harsh war. As an Australian of Silesian descent I regret Silesia's loss to Germany. However, I believe most German Silesians accept its loss and want nothing more from Poles than a just recognition of the area's German history. I believe this is now happening, in contrast to the nationalist myth-making of the Communist era. Personally, I find the reconciliation between Poles and Germans a beautiful thing in a world where there is too much hate and unforgiveness.

Morvah from United Kingdom Reply Sep 8th, 2009

"The above article,with reference to the 1930s, suggests that at that time Wroclaw had been known as "BRESLAU" for only 200 years. This is incorrect. The history of the name "BRESLAU" in all its variations over 700 years is recorded in Paul Hefftner's "URSPRUNG UND BEDEUTUNG DER ORTSNAMEN IM STADTKREIS BRESLAU - Breslau 1909" (www.sbc.org.pl) as follows: ""These are the names for Breslau in early GERMAN documents: 1280 "stat Wratislaw", 1295 "Wrezlaw", 1301 "Wraislaw", 1302 "Bretzla", 1314 and 1334 "stat zu Breslau", 1314 and 1357 "Brezlaw", 1324 "Bretzlav" and "Bretzlau", 1327 "stat czu Wretslaw", 1333 until 1370 on a number of occasions "Breczlaw", 1337 "Wratislauia" (Latin), 1339 "Breslou", 1348 and 1351 "Breslaw" and "cives Wraczlauiensis" (Latin), 1350 "Bresslawe" and "stat zu Presslaw". 1359, 1361, 1363, 1367 "Bresslow", 1359 "Bresslaw", 1360 "Breslow", 1367 "Brezslaw", 1371 "Bresslau" and "Bretzlaw", 1452 until 1620 repeatedly "Breßlaw", 1453 until 1800 invariably "Breßlau", 1555 and 1561 "Presslaw", 1713, 1792, 1801 and from then on exclusively "Breslau"" - A correction of the above article and its "historical summary" is long overdue.

Lerge from United States Reply Sep 3rd, 2009

Just repeating the correct address:"breslau-wroclaw.de"

Lerge from United Kingdom Reply Sep 3rd, 2009

Hallo Peter Sauer, if you can communicate in German (and even if you can't), go to www.breslau-wroclaw.de. I think you will get the answers you are looking for. There are extremely helpful Germans and Poles trying to assist with any queries.

Peter Sauer from Canada Reply Sep 2nd, 2009

Are there any digital records available on the internet of Breslau where I can research my family.

Morvah from United Kingdom Reply Sep 2nd, 2009

The "BRESLAUER URKUNDENBUCH" (Digital Library of the University of Zielona Gora) dates the first document in the GERMAN LANGUAGE the 3. August 1280 - Extract as follows: S. 295 ff. ""Wir rathman, scheppfen und burgere gemeine von Wratislaw thuen wissendlich und kunt allen, die diesen brief horen (ge)lesen, das wir durch bete des edelen fursten, hertzoge Heinriches von Glogau, seinen burgeren der stat zu Glogowe gesant haben diesen brief mit beschriebenen rechte, also als man is in unser stat Wratislaw ymmer me halten soll und von alder zeit bisher zu rechte hat gehalten nach weichbildes rechte.……etc…etc…"". Documents prior to 1280 were written in LATIN. Whilst Breslau is called WRATISLAW, it is quite evident that German was its official language prior to 1300.

Moryc Beniowski from United States Reply Aug 30th, 2009

Just to clarify the origins of Wroclaw as a city. It was created around 800-850 A.D. by Slavic people and the original name was Wrotizla. You can't say it was Polish or Chech as the states didn't exist yet. It was ruled by Silesian Piasts (first royal dynasty of Poland) till 1335 when Casimir the Great traded the Silesia to Chechs for their rights to Polish crown. After mongolian invasions of 13 century German influence is growing due to mass enslavement of Polish population by Tartars. Silesia was simply depopulated. Anyway city was a part of Chech crown till 1526 when it was taken by Habsburgs. The official name was then Vreclav. Under Habsburgs it became Presslau aand was a part of Holy Roman Empire till 1741 when after Silesian Wars Frederic the Great captured the city and renamed it Breslau. That's the date we can talk about Prussian-German real ownership of Wroclaw. But to show the full picture of the situation Wroclaw was a part of Gniezno archbishopry till mid19th century and Polish catholic church was supervising Wroclaw catholic clergy. After 1945 in Yalta it was decided by Chuchill, Roosevelt and Stalin that Polish borders were going to be shifted westwards alltogether with german and polish populations. If anyone want to complain about today situation please contact USA, British and Russian governments respectively.

Sonnenblume from France Reply Aug 25th, 2009

Was hat das noch zu bedeuten, ob Breslau 200 Hundert Jahre oder 600 J. Deutsch oder Polnisch war, Deutschland hat dieses Teil, wo ich noch geboren wurde als meine Heimat ansehe durch diesen Mörderischen Angriffskrieg verloren.Ich habe Breslau 1979 besucht,war begeistert über die Freundlichkeit mit der ich dort von den Menschen Empfangen wurde. Ich wünsche den Menschen die dieses Gebiet jetzt ihre Heimat nennen alles alles Gute.Möge nie mehr ein 39-45 in Europa geschehen.

Tim from United Kingdom Reply Aug 14th, 2009

Dita: I can only read the English part of that page and it seams an internal legal German problem. It's not the view of any other European nation or of the EU and Strassbourg courts. I can see that there may be powers in Germany which could exploit this legal matter, but for everyone else the game is already over.

Dita from United Kingdom Reply Aug 12th, 2009

As I wrote some time ago: "Legally, the German-Polish-Border Treaty of 1990 - like the Warsaw Treaty of 1970 - is a treaty of non-aggression, not a treaty of border settlement. If you can read German the following Link may interest you. http://www.uni-kassel.de/fb5/frieden/themen/Befreiung/polen-grenze.html". No permanent settlements can be achieved by historical amnesia.

Tim from United Kingdom Reply Aug 11th, 2009

Here is a part of the "Resolution on the German-Polish Frontier adopted by the German Bundestag on 21 June 1990." It leaves no room for interpretation about the current border: "The two sides reaffirm the inviolability of the frontier existing between them now and in the future and undertake to respect each other's sovereignty and territorial integrity without restriction. The two sides declare that they have no territorial claims whatsoever against each other hand that they will not assert such claims in the future. The Government of the Federal Republic of Germany is formally called upon to communicate this resolution to the Republic of Poland as the expression of its will."

Stephen from United States Reply Aug 7th, 2009

This history is highly bias and as such is falsified. Firstly, Silesia became a German fief in 1163 (though Polish influence remained until the Mongol Attack), the German settlement of the region starting shortly thereafter, encouraged by the local rulers, just as it had been in Pomerania. As for Breslau, it was re-founded in 1262 (and thereafter the only name used in official documents) after the Mongol Attack. Between 1200 and 1300, Silesia became virtually wholly German in character due to the eastwards shift of Europe (culminating in the conquest and settlement of Siberia by Russia and not excluding the Poles settling in Galicia all the way to the Dniper river and the Ukrainians beyond the Don, although this Polish settlement was reversed save in Galicia and Wilno from 1831-1914 and destroyed following 1945), save the Cieszyn region as well as the duchy of Oswiecim/Auschwitz, the latter absorbed into Poland in 1454/1494. Silesia (always excluding Cieszyn) remained virtually wholly German until the early 15th century, the Hussite Wars decimating much of the population of Upper Silesia which was subsequently settled or re-settled if you wish, by Poles. Thereafter, Upper Silesia remained some 5/8 Polish for nearly 500 years, and Silesia was a German territory from roughly 1300-1945, or 650 years. The same timeframe is true for Pomerania and Prussia, albeit Pomerelia is not included--as it was always Polish. Indeed the majority of Silesia was mainly German from 1250-1945, nearly 700 years.

Lerge from United Kingdom Reply Mar 26th, 2009

Robert, I thought the reply, on 30.11.08, of D. Thomas in the Breslau-Wroclaw Forum might have been of help to you.

Robert Arditti from United Kingdom Reply Mar 24th, 2009

I tried to get http://www.breslau-wroclaw.de./ but nothing happened, just a blank page. I guess I am not going to find any body with the name Deynert

Robert from United Kingdom Reply Mar 14th, 2009

this is for Lerge thank you for trying to help but I had no luck, Oh well back to the drawing board

Morvah from United Kingdom Reply Mar 10th, 2009

The above article, refering to the 1930s, says that Wroclaw had then been "known as Breslau for 200 years". This is misleading in that it suggests that Breslau was "germanic" for approximately 200 years only. However, the "Breslauer Urkundenbuch" to be found in the digital library of the university of Zielona Gora dates the first document in the German language the 3. August 1280 (pg 48) - Extract: 50. Rechtssätze, welche die Breslauer den Glogauern mitgetheilt haben am 3. August 1280. Abschrift im Liber Niger des glogauer Stadtarchivs, Supplemente S. 295 ff. ""Wir rathman, scheppfen und burgere gemeine von Wratislaw thuen wissendlich und kunt allen, die diesen brief horen (ge)lesen, das wir durch bete des edelen fursten, hertzoge Heinriches von Glogau, seinen burgeren der stat zu Glogowe gesant haben diesen brief mit beschriebenen rechte, also als man is in unser stat Wratislaw ymmer me halten soll und von alder zeit bisher zu rechte hat gehalten nach weichbildes rechte.……etc…etc…"". Documents prior to 1280 were written in Latin.

Tom from United Kingdom Reply Mar 5th, 2009

How can you say in the article that the jews and poles were politely asked to leave by the Nazi's?

DITA from United Kingdom Reply Feb 27th, 2009

Hallo, Christa, as someone also born in Breslau and having had to flee from the Soviet army in 1945 with my mother and brother, I can only confirm your experience. On my first return in 1991 I was warmly received by the present occupants of "our home" where the furniture of my parents was still being stored in the attic room. I have also been back since and have no regrets.

Christa from United States Reply Feb 19th, 2009

I just happened upon this page and I am glad I did. I too was born in Breslau before the war and left with my parents in Jan. 1945. My grandparents stayed behind and had to leave in 1946 after the polish people moved in. If one understands history, they will grasp that the polish people were victims just the same. My father had the good fortune to visit Breslau for the first time in 1975 and was most warmly recieved by the people, at that time, occupying the our family home on Nelkenweg. He made other visits over the years and I did too in 1992 nad 1993. The same people were still there and I too was welcomed, although my dad was not with me. I have the highest regard the for the polish people who rebuilt our beautiful Breslau. I visited again in 2006 and hpope to make at least one more journey to my hometown, the city I will always love.

LERGE from United Kingdom Reply Nov 28th, 2008

Hallo Robert of the previous entry, if you speak German (and even if you do not), have a look at www.breslau-wroclaw.de. You may well find quite a bit of information about your distant family in old address books etc or through the help of knowledgable individuals who may respond to your queries, even if they are in English. Good luck!!!

Robert from United Kingdom Reply Nov 8th, 2008

I am not Polish or German, however I do have a conection to Breslau, now called Wrocklaw. My Grandfather was from there but moved to England at the end of the 1800s. He was not a follower of Hitler, nor were his family. When he moved to England he left his German family behind and made his own family in the UK. His daughter, my mother married a jew and I was a result of that union. My Grandfather's name was Joseph Deynert, a very old German name, and his father was the head of the fire bregade in what was then Breslau. His Brother also worked as a fireman. These were people who lived like anybody else. In fact my Great Grandfather died in Breslau of cancer, as did his wife Dorothea. I don't know what happened to my Great Uncle or my Great Aunt Hedwig, but I am sure they went years ago. What I find sad about some of the comments on here, is that people are still clinging to the past. They are still looking for someone to blame. The only thing I would say is that I am sad that I can not find anything out about my Great Grand Parents, or if I have cousins still in that area. It seems that no records remain prior to 1946 about the people that have lived there. I know that My Great Grand Parents were buried there, but have no idea where.

Dita from United Kingdom Reply Aug 28th, 2008

Correction..correction: Border..Border

Dita from United Kingdom Reply Aug 28th, 2008

Polarring, thanks for your comment and Links. Legally, the German-Polish-Boarder Treaty of 1990 - like the Warsaw Treaty of 1970 - is a treaty of non-agression, not a treaty of boarder settlement. If you can read German the following Link may interest you. http://www.uni-kassel.de/fb5/frieden/themen/Befreiung/polen-grenze.html

Polarring from United Kingdom Reply Aug 26th, 2008

Dita, there is the German-Polish Border Treaty from 1990 regulating border disputes between two countries http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/German-Polish_Border_Treaty_(1990). It is legally binding and recognized by international community. Polish Provisional Government of National Unity was Soviet puppet and it did not represent Polish nation. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Provisional_Government_of_National_Unity

Dita from United Kingdom Reply Aug 24th, 2008

The following extract from the Potsdam Conference of 1945 clearly leaves the "final delineation of the western frontier of Poland" open until "the peace settlement". There has never been such a settlement. There is therefore no legal reason why "Wroclaw" should not still be considered to be "Breslau" by its former inhabitans. B. WESTERN FRONTIER OF POLAND. In conformity with the agreement on Poland reached at the Crimea Conference the three Heads of Government have sought the opinion of the Polish Provisional Government of National Unity in regard to the accession of territory in the north 'end west which Poland should receive. The President of the National Council of Poland and members of the Polish Provisional Government of National Unity have been received at the Conference and have fully presented their views. The three Heads of Government reaffirm their opinion that the final delimitation of the western frontier of Poland should await the peace settlement.

SilkyJohnson from Canada Reply Aug 15th, 2008

I cannot believe all these people that are saying it is a German City, did you not read the brief history, It was POLISH first Then German, Poles where there first, history does not start in the 17th century People!!! Anyway its Polish now has been for for the last 65 years, and its going to stay like that Plus Poles REBUILT the CITY so there are no German claims to it at all

Slav from United States Reply Jun 12th, 2008

Antonio, no we did not expel any germans, we expelled Nazi criminals. Sometimes the “human- cultural world” reaps what it sows. Be glad Nazi criminals from Austria got out so easily.

Janusz Pankowski from United States Reply Jun 9th, 2008

I am going to Wroclaw to meet with my German friend whose family came from Breslau. We are Polish living in United States. I don't need to remind anybody that the past is filled with horrible events. We intend to talk about them in civilized way, asking questions, learning for our children so they can grow without prejudice. Janusz Pankowski

fake from Algeria Reply Jun 3rd, 2008

How many germans have slavic ancesters?

Jeremy from Canada Reply May 31st, 2008

My grandmother was born near here and kicked out of her house in 45 and made to leave all together in 1946. Some people here really hate Germans and Germany, time for you people to stop living in the past or look at your own people first. Today with the European Union Germans are free to move back. As the older people die off the need for compensation will disappear. It's too bad these people who DO NOT bear the guilt of their parents couldn't get something but it is just another page in the large book of human crimes. Can't wait to visit this place in September for the first time! It will always be a German city to me but the Poles are welcome to live there, it's not their faults either.

Antonio from Austria Reply May 30th, 2008

Wroclaw is still Breslau for the human- cultural world. 1944-1948: poland explused and killed millions of germans from the former easter german territories. In fact, the was no big different between the nazi and the polish. But sti criminals.

Nicola from Italy Reply Feb 16th, 2008

Nazi Germany inflicted grief and pain to the rest of Europe in its war against the world. But we have to be honest and recognize that millions of Germans had to go through terrible suffering, losing their centuries-old heimat. I recommend that you read Guido Knopp beautiful account on the eviction of 15 millions from their lands. After 63 years we can have a quiet debate on our recent history and admit that Breslau was a German City that the terrible events of history turned to Poland, the same events that were turning the Polish city of Lwow to the USSR.

Chris from United Kingdom Reply Feb 13th, 2008

I found this brief history very interesting and helpful. One small point "it's" should be "its".

abo from United Kingdom Reply Jan 29th, 2008

Went to Wroclaw May 2007 for a great weekend, beautiful place, people friendly. Have recommended it to many people. Abo

Angie from United States Reply Dec 28th, 2007

I'm heading over to Wroclaw tomorrow for almost a week. I'm excited to meet the good people of Poland. I sure have found good people everywhere including germany where my ancestors stem from. Let us all remember to love each other and change whatever has been done in the past to good will to each other. Let us remember what has been done in the past, and do our best to change things for the future.

Michael from Australia Reply Nov 23rd, 2007

Yea, germans want compensation for being expelled from that part of europe - the only compensation they deserve is a big swift kick up the arse! They're country tried to take the whole of europe, killed millions, and lost - now they want compensation? What is this, the twilight zone??

Pam from United States Reply Nov 1st, 2007

What a privilege I've had since first visiting Wroclaw in 1989 and many summers since! I've been a witness to incredible historical changes---and have fallen in love with the Poles. They have done a magnificent job of rising from the ashes which were handed to them! It has become a vibrant, lively cultural center which people should definitely visit.

Pam from United States Reply Nov 1st, 2007

What a privilege I've had since first visiting Wroclaw in 1989 and many summers since! I've been a witness to incredible historical changes---and have fallen in love with the Poles. They have done a magnificent job of rising from the ashes which were handed to them! It has become a vibrant, lively cultural center which people should definitely visit.

Dita from United Kingdom Reply Oct 17th, 2007

Born in the former Breslau, with Silesian roots back to the 17th century and probably before, I am delighted that Wroclaw is a city open to all. My departure, as a child, from the city was as a refugee in 1945. My first return was in 1991 as a visitor who was most warmly received. Even the people in the house of my birth treated me like a friend. I wish Wroclaw well and cannot wait to return to that cosmopolitan and hospitable city of great beauty.

bob from United States Reply Oct 15th, 2007

Hey David from Aug 25th posting. My grandparents were also of Jewish descent and lived in Breslau. Have some old pictures. I'd like to go back someday. Any advice? Bob

Daniel from United States Reply Sep 30th, 2007

Wroclaw, once in the hands of the Polish Kingdom now again and forever the hands of the Polish. Any German that feels they still have claims on my holy land is a dirty racist.

Adam from Australia Reply Sep 23rd, 2007

Dan sounds like an idiot!

Zenon from Poland Reply Sep 3rd, 2007

Dan are you joking?

Simon from New Zealand Reply Aug 25th, 2007

I think the comments mentioned above are a little one sided and quite antagornistic, especially the one who seems to think that only Europeans are capable of killing. No state has clean hands in this respect and I don't think it helps anyone to point fingers for past generations. The history of Wroclaw is very interesting and there is a definate feel that the city is rising from the ashes of the last 60 years. Today, thousands of tourists, including Germans, from all over Europe come here. I think the city has so much going for it with regard to a university city that is extremely well designed. Very easy to walk around by foot. With regard to the first persons comments about whether it should be given back, the question seems a little naive. Even Germany has agreed that it has no claim to Lower Silesia, so why give a Polish city to Germany?

David from United States Reply Aug 25th, 2007

I am in Wroclaw as we speak visiting the place where my German-Jewish grandfather was born. We just got back from Auschwitz where part of my family perished. Let all of us remember that Germany has forfeited any claim to any land, including their own, during the last century of bloodshed brought about by the continuing German canard of their "racial superiority." It was extremely disturbing to see Wroclaw referred to as Breslau all the way to the Polish border. As Churchill stated, the seeds are planted. What family survived the Holocaust now lives in Denmark, another land filled with bigots, their whipping children are the Muslims they invited to live as basically second class "workers" that the Danes apparently thought would happily submit to the tiny, narrow worldview they hold. The last half of the second millenium is basically a story of Europeans rampaging around this planet, killing probably close to a billion people with their guns, germs and steel, destroying thousands of cultures, pillaging resources and subjugating whoever was left over. To the comment regarding the American Indian, please note who was doing the killing/pillaging - it sure wasn't indigenous Americans, it was Europeans doing what they do best - killing.

Rodman E. Doll from United States Reply Aug 19th, 2007

It is interesting to note that the shift of the borders of Poland west was suggested by Winston Churchill at one of the conferences with Stalin and Roosevelt. Later, he had second thoughts, and said that it might produce the seeds of future wars. On the whole, I prefer the large Poland before the war to the small Poland, (subjugated by Russia) after the war.

Slav from United States Reply Jul 28th, 2007

Sure Dan, just after USA returns its land to the rightfull owners ie American Indians.

Piotrek from Poland Reply Jul 3rd, 2007

Wroc³aw always polish!!!

Dan from United States Reply Jun 23rd, 2007

Dont you think its time to return the region to its rightful owner ie Germany?

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